Battle fought via e-mail
Feldmarschall von Browne:
Torsten Spindler, et alii
Feldmarschall Graf Daun:
Fred Avner, et alii
General von Bevern:
John Hill, et alii
The map shows an area of approximately 9000 × 6700 yards. The town of Jung Bunzlau is located in the south-western corner of the map, directly on the Iser river. Many roads and streams in the area are tree-lined, blocking line of sight.
Important map locations have been marked as follows:
- The Iser river can be seen taking a sharp turn in the south-western corner of the map. The river then runs north, just off the western map edge, blocking all exit routs there.
- The Modderbach, a tributary of the Iser runs across the western and
northern section of the map. There are six bridges across the Modderbach, and they
are marked by skirmish cavalry units which have been placed directly north of
the crossings. From west to east, these bridges are identified as follows:
- Bridge at the Hambacher Mühle, on the road leading into the village of Crumpitz, approximately 1200 yards north of the crossing.
- Bridge at the Bruch Mühle, on the road leading east, into the village of Hahnitz.
- Bridge near Hahnitz, 600 yards south-west of the village.
- Bridge at the Hahnitz Mühle, 400 yards east of Hahnitz.
- Bridge at the Kray Mühle, 300 yards west of Punglitz
- Bridge at Punglitz
- Schollau village is on the northern map edge, 1300 yards north of Hahnitz.
- The Landgraben canal bisects the map from north-west to south-east, and it cuts across the Modderbach almost exactly half-way between bridges #1 and #2. The Landgraben is tree-lined, blocking line of sight.
- Bruchhof farm is located at the point where Landgraben and Modderbach intersect. The bridge at Bruchhof crosses the Landgraben.
- Fängenhof farm is located 1400 yards directly south of Hambacher Mühle. For your reference, there is a cavalry division of two brigades 500 yards south of the Fängenhof. The cavalry is 1800 yards north of an infantry brigade of three regiments and an artillery battery. The brigade faces north, with the left flank anchored on Jung Bunzlau and the right flank anchored on Bunzlauer Wald. Brigade frontage is 1050 yards, a tight fit at this spot. A few hundred yards north of the infantry brigade is a road which leads from Jung Bunzlau to the village of Hirschlein, on the other side of the Bunzlauer Wald.
- Bunzlauer Wald is the large forested area east of Jung Bunzlau and just east of the infantry brigade positioned there. In the center of the woods is a single cavalry brigade which marks the location of the Bunzlauer Galgen (gallows). The road to Hirschlein runs parallel to the northern edge of the unit, notice that there is a turn in the road where it enters the western edge of the Bunzlauer Wald.
- Hirschlein village is 1200 yards east of Bunzlauer Wald, west of the Landgraben canal and 400 yards north of the southern map edge. A line drawn parallel to the south-eastern edge of the village runs into another reference unit, an infantry brigade of five regiments 1000 yards north-east of Hirschlein. Brigade frontage is 1500 yards, and the right flank of the brigade is deployed on a road just 100 yards south of Birkenach village. The road continues around the western edge of Birkenach and it takes a left turn just 100 yards south of Birkenacher Wald, a large forested area extending all the way to the northern map edge.
- The Birkenach-Punglitz road runs along the western edge of Birkenacher Wald for another 700 yards until it reaches a defile (the chokepoint is marked by a skirmish cavalry unit deployed on it) formed by Birkenacher Wald to the east and Hartenau west of it.
- Hartenau is a large swampy area extending from the defile on the Birkenach-Punglitz road all the way west to the Landgraben and south to Hirschlein. There are two large areas of dry ground north of Hirschlein and a few minor roads can be seen cutting through them. For your reference, an infantry brigade of five regiments has been deployed in the most difficult section of the Hartenau. The brigade faces south-west and the left flank regiment is hanging back about 150 yards from the line. Immediately in front of the left flank regiment is Hartenauer Hof, a small farm located on a patch of dry ground.
- Important road connections are as follows:
- Jung Bunzlau - Fängenhof - Hambacher Mühle
- Jung Bunzlau - Bruch Mühle (tree-lined, passes 400 yards east of Fängenhof)
- Jung Bunzlau - Hirschlein - Birkenach (tree-lined, cuts through Bunzlauer Wald)
- Bruch Mühle - Bruchhof - Punglitz (runs south of and parallel to the Modderbach).
- Bruch Mühle - Hahnitz (north of the Modderbach and mostly tree-lined)
- Hahnitz - Punglitz – Münchengrätz (tree-lined)
- Hahnitz - Schollau – Münchengrätz (tree-lined)
- Bruch Mühle - Hambacher Mühle (north of the Modderbach)
- Hambacher Mühle - Crumpitz – Münchengrätz (tree-lined north of Crumpitz)
- Birkenach - Punglitz (see above)
- Alt-Lissa - Jung Bunzlau
- Alt-Lissa - Hirschlein
General Bevern's Prussian forces will attempt to break out of the Alt Bunzlau pocket. They hope to get an early start, breaking camp at 06:00 hours. Feldmarschall von Browne's forces are south of and approximately 3-4 hours behind Bevern. Cavalry patrols and light infantry units of Feldmarschall Daun's corps are already operating north of the Modderbach, the main body is expected to arrive on the field very shortly.
Austrian Forces (red): Feldmarschall Leopold Maria Graf von Daun
- O'Kelly's Austrian infantry brigade
- Graf Preysing's Bavarian infantry brigade
- Graf Nostitz's Saxon cavalry division
Prussian forces (blue):
Herzog und General der Infanterie August Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Bevern
- 5 Heavy artillery battalions
- 3 Fieldartillery battalions
- Kleinhausen's infantry brigade
- Fouque's infantry brigade
- v. d. Goltz's infantry brigade
- Hülsen's infantry brigade
Austrian Forces (red): Feldmarschall Maximilian Ulysses Reichsgraf von Browne
- Graf Hadick's Avantgarde
- FZM Kollowrath's infantry brigade
- Graf Lubomirsky's Saxon infantry brigade
- GdK Luchesse and Radicati's cavalry division
- Andlau's infantry brigade
- Benckendorff's cavalry division
The Prussians break camp at 06:00 hours ...
- 06:00 hours: General von Bevern deploys his four infantry brigades in a giant square formation, centered on the village of Birckenach. Keeping a grenadier regiment as a central reserve, the entire formation moves north at half speed. Artillery units march with the square, ready to deploy into firing positions. Saxon cavalry, hussars and Croats from FM Daun's corps are in position at Modderbach crossings near Kray Mühle, Hahnitz Mühle and at the bridge south of Hahnitz.
- 07:00 hours: The Prussian square moves north-east, avoiding the marshes of Hartenau. FM Daun and a brigade of Bavarian infantry arrive at Schollau, the infantry begins to deploy in line, facing south. FM von Browne's road column arrives at Jung Bunzlau. Croats from Browne's corps comb through the Bunzlauer Wald, searching for enemy forces there.
- 08:00 hours: Bevern orders the square to move north. Daun's Bavarian brigade continues to deploy regiments forward, into line, facing south. Artillery attached to the Bavarians deploys astride the Schollau-Hahnitz road. O'Kelly's Austrian infantry brigade arrives at Schollau and heads west, toward Crumpitz. Hussars shift west, sending patrols across the Modderbach at Hambach Mühle and Bruch Mühle. Croats move west, following the Hussars. Browne's column advances north, toward Hambach Mühle. Hadick's advance guard passes Fängenhof.
- 09:00 hours: The Prussian square continues to move north. Preysing's Bavarian brigade maintains position between Punglitz and the Schollau-Hahnitz road. O'Kelly's lead elements reach Crumpitz, the entire road column extends as far back as Schollau. Croats arrive at the Hambacher Mühle and Bruch Mühle. Hadick's advance guard of Browne's corps links up with Daun's cavalry and Croat units holding the Hambacher Mühle and Bruch Mühle. Hadick's hussars deploy east and patrol along the southern bank of the Modderbach. Grenadiers and artillery deploy into line, facing east and anchoring their left flank on the Modderbach. The rest of Hadick's division and Browne's corps continues to move up along the Jung Bunzlau-Crumpitz road. FM Königseck's corps arrives at Hirschlein. Heavy artillery and grenadiers head east and then north toward Birkenach. Banater light infantry and the remainder of Andlau's brigade take the northern road and then turn east toward Birkenach.
- 10:00 hours: The Prussian square reaches a position 1200 yards east and just south of Punglitz. The western face of the square is partially outside of the Birkenacher Wald, the rest of the square is inside the woods. FM Daun rest his troops for an hour, doing nothing. FM Browne has Hadick deploy the advance guard just south of the Modderbach, facing east. Kollowrath's and Lubomirky's brigades turn east, reaching the Landgraben later in the hour. Croat infantry from Browne's corps completes the reconaissance of the Bunzlauer Wald and links up with Kollowrath's brigade at the Landgraben. Andlau's brigade of Königseck's corps continues to advance toward Birkenach. Artillery halts just south of Birkenach to allow the infantry to pass through town first. Croats advance north-east and then north, into the Birkenacher Wald. At approximately 10:25 the Banater skirmishers locate two regiments of Prussian infantry inside the woods, it is the first enemy contact of the day.
- 11:00 hours: The Prussian square moves west 600 yards, putting a grenadier regiment in the lead to cover the artillery which remained limbered throughout the advance. Another grenadier regiment at the south-western corner of the square charges the Banater skirmishers and eliminates them in melee. O'Kelly's brigade of Daun's corps faces about and marches toward Punglitz, reaching the town within the hour. The tail of the road column extends all the way back to Schollau. Saxon Kürassiers von Arnim re-deploy from Kray Mühle bridge to the left flank of Preysing's Bavarian brigade. Kürassiers von Vitzhum remain at the bridge. Hussars and Croats from Daun's corps leave their positions at Hambach and Bruch Mühle, crossing to the southern bank of the Modderbach and heading east toward Punglitz. FM Browne halts his infantry column where the road ends at the Landgraben. Hadick's advance Guard marches east, reaching the Landgraben at Bruchhof farm. Hadick and Baraniay Hussars continue to move east, scouting the area south of the Modderbach. Hadick Hussars arrive at a tree-lined road 1200 yards south of Punglitz and encounter the lead enemy grenadier regiment there. Effective musketry fire eliminates the hussars. Baraniay Hussars moving up in support are not effected. FM Königseck halts the road column at Birkenach, pondering the next move. The battlefield around 11:50. Vitzhum Kürassiers can be seen at the top edge of the map, facing south. On the right flank of von Vitzhum is Preysing's Bavarian brigade, four regiments and a battery. South of von Vitzum is the other Saxon cavalry unit, von Arnim, holding the bridge at Kray Mühle. East of von Arnim can be seen O'Kelly's brigade in road column, reaching all the way west to Hahnlitz and then north to Schollau. Hadick's advance guard is near the western map edge. Three units of Browne's corps can be seen entering the western map edge in road column. The advance element has reached the Landgraben, just north of the Bunzlauer Wald. Königseck's corps can be seen at the south-eastern map edge. The lead element is in Birkenach. The grey shaded area in the center of the map is the Hartenau.
- 12:00 hours: The Prussian square moves 600 yards west, emerging from the tree-lined road south of Punglitz, and bringing Baraniay Hussars under close range cannister fire from two artillery batteries and the battalion guns of a regiment of infantry. The hussars pull back to avoid the devastating fire. FM Daun issues no new orders, keeping Preysing's brigade in line and O'Kelly's units in road column, just outside Punglitz. Nostitz deploys his cavalry division on the right flank of Preysing's brigade. Hussars and Croats from Daun's corps continue to move east, toward Punglitz. Later in the hour it is reported that FM Daun has been wounded and taken to the rear. General Nostitz assumes command of the corps. Kollowrath's brigade faces about and marches around the western edge of the Bunzlauer Wald. They reach the Jung Bunzlau-Hirschlein road approximately 600 yards east of Jung Bunzlau and then head east, toward Hirschlein. The 1st Heavy Artillery arrives at Jung Bunzlau and is stalled behind Kollowrath's infantry. Lubomirsky's brigade withdraws to Jung Bunzlau to make room for Kollowrath's re-deployment. Radicati's cavalry division arrives alongside the artillery and reaches a position just south of the Jung Bunzlau-Hirschlein road. Lead elements of Andlau's brigade move into the Birkenacher Wald, reaching a position 400 yards south-east of the enemy, but just out of sight. Königseck's artillery is stalled at the Birckenach crossroads and Benckendorff's cavalry is even further to the rear of the column.
- 13:00 hours: General Bevern orders the entire square to rotate north, so that the western brigade faces Punglitz. They are now within 100 yards of the outskirts of the town, but still out of sight of Daun's forces deployed north and west of Punglitz. The town itself is not occupied by Austrian forces, roads to the Münchengrätz remain open. Nostitz orders O'Kelly's brigade to occupy Punglitz with two regiments, IR Rot-Würzburg and IR Blau-Würzburg, keeping IR Deutschmeister and 4. Heavy Artillery in reserve north of the town. IR Daun deploys north-east of Punglitz in order to oppose any attempts of crossing the Modderbach there. Hadick's advance guard continues to move west, moving south of the Modderbach. Lead elements of Kollowrath's brigade reach Hirschlein. They halt there, awaiting further orders. Radicati's cavalry moves around the northern edge of the Bunzlauer Wald, heading east, toward the Landgraben Andlau's brigade deploys in line, facing north-west, with IR Pallavinci on the extreme left flank and just outside the Birkenacher Wald. The unit draws long-range artillery fire from heavy guns stationed north of the defile.
- 14:00 hours: Hülsen's brigade breaks formation and advances in the direction of Punglitz. Two regiments on the right flank encounter superior numbers of O'Kelly's brigade in town and immediately engage them in a firefight. Since both sides are moving and disordered inside a built-up area, their fire is ineffective. The left flank of the brigade encounters heavy opposition at the Kray Mühle bridge. An enemy artillery unit is caught while still limbered and suffers damage from close range cannister fire. IR von Amstell (Nr. 8) is destroyed by effective battalion gun fire from two regiments of Preysing's brigade. This action leaves the left flank of 5. Heavy Artillery wide open. Regiments Rot-Würzburg and Daun return fire against enemy units entering Punglitz from the south-east, without effect. Battalion gun fire from IR Blau-Würzburg takes effect against IR von Brandenburg-Schwedt (Nr. 19). Preysing's brigade south-west of Punglitz loses an artillery battery to heavy cannister fire at close range. Their battalion gun fire destroys IR Nr. 8 and damages an enemy battery. Hussars from Hadick's advance guard observe the destruction or enemy IR Nr. 8 which leaves the flank of an enemy artillery unit uncovered. Baraniay Hussars charge, disorder and rout the enemy battery. The hussars take the ground and face south-east, presenting front against an enemy grenadier regiment approximately 450 yards away. Andlau's brigade remains stationary south and east of the defile. IR Pallavinci is destroyed by continued and effective long-range artillery fire. Other units of the brigade are well inside the forest and not subject to any fire.
- 15:00 hours: Hülsen's infantry sustains heavy casualties in the firefight with regiments of O'Kelly's brigade inside Punglitz. IR von Brandenburg-Schwedt (Nr. 19) is destroyed, survivors of IR von Münchow panic, throwing the unit into disorder. 3. Heavy Artillery faces west and drives Baraniay Hussars off with close range cannister fire. Lamotte Fouque's brigade breakes the formation of the square and executes a right wheel. One regiment and two batteries encounter infantry of Andlau's brigade inside the Birkenacher Wald and engage them in a firefight. Austrian brigades of O'Kelly and Preysing hold their ground inside Punglitz and across the Modderbach at Kray Mühle. The firefight inside Punglitz gradually winds down as Hülsen's brigade is destroyed by effective fire. Baraniay Hussars withdraw behind the cover of Grenadiers and Carabiniers in Hadick's advance guard. Hadick orders the artillery forward, putting Kleinhausen's Grenadiers under close range cannister fire with good effect. Kollowrath's brigade of Browne's corps advances north, into the defile, and deploys IR Kaiser against the right flank of Lamotte Fouque's Prussian brigade. Fire from IR Kaiser is ineffective, but the regiment is hit by close range cannister fire from a heavy battery deployed in the Birkenacher Wald. Andlau's infantry suffers heavy casualties at the hands of the two batteries of heavy artillery deployed against them in the Birkenacher Wald. IR Waldeck is destroyed, IR Macquire panics and routs to the rear. 2. Field Artillery continues to hold the center of Andlau's position, but the cover of the trees does not permit them to fire against enemy units attacking the right flank of the line.
- 16:00 hours: Following the destruction of Hülsen's brigade, von der Goltz orders one infantry regiments into Punglitz and two other to cross the Modderbach just north of town, to engage O'Kelly's brigade there. Artillery batteries from Goltz's brigade remain in their original positions, unable to support the attack on Punglitz, and grenadiers from the central reserve move up to plug one of the gaps in Goltz's line. O'Kelly moves his reserve infantry regiment, IR Deutschmeister, to the extreme left flank of his line to defend against Prussian infantry from Goltz's brigade which can be seen approaching the Modderbach. Inside Punglitz, IR Blau-Würzburg is destroyed in a firefight with IR Nr. 42, leaving a large gap in O'Kelly's line. Artillery fire from Hadick's brigade destroys the remaining artillery of Hülsen's brigade. Croats from Browne's corps open effective musketry fire against the southern corner of the square, from positions just inside the Hartenau. Both sides suffer casualties in the exchange. Lamotte Fouque's brigade withdraws to its original position in the square, keeping IR Kaiser under heavy artillery cannister fire. Austrian infantry from Kollowrath's brigade continues to arrive at the defile, deploying into line east of IR Kaiser. Heavy artillery unlimbers west of IR Kaiser and engages Prussian IR Nr. 12 (von Finck) with heavy cannister fire. Lubomirsky's Saxon infantry brigade moves up behind Kollowrath and prepares to deploy against Lamotte Fouque as well.
- 17:00 hours: O'Kelly's position at Punglitz is becoming untenable as another regiment, IR Daun, is destroyed in the firefight with von der Goltz's regiments. O'Kelly's brigade is exhausted, but there is no sign of panic in the ranks. Prussian IR Nr. 42 advances against Rot-Würzburg to exploit the gap in O'Kelly's line, but the unit comes under effective cannister fire from Austrian reserve artillery deployed behind Punglitz. While O'Kelly faces the second major attack of the day, regiments from Preysing's brigade hold their unopposed positions west of Punglitz, unable to support the defenders of the town. IR Deutschmeister is destroyed in a firefight with IR Nr. 1, fighting to take the Modderbach crossing. Because of the heavy casualties, remaining units in O'Kelly's brigade are thrown into panic. Prussian IR Nr. 29 crosses the Modderbach and turns to face north-west to keep an escape route open for other units. Later in the hour, two regiments of Preysing's brigade are ordered out of line at the Kray Mühle, and sent north-east to reinforce the action at Punglitz. Saxon cavalry moves up in support of the Bavarian infantry. Artillery from Hadick's brigade engages and destroys enemy grenadiers deployed on the extreme right flank of Kleinhausen's brigade. IR Kaiser is destroyed by heavy cannister fire. Other units of Kollowrath's brigade continue to deploy into line east of IR Kaiser's position, making room for Lubomirsky's regiments advancing by the same road. Radicati's cavalry division deploys two of its three brigades just south of the Hartenau and only 800 yards away from the southern corner of the Prussian square.
- 18:00 hours: IR von Preysing arrives to occupy Punglitz again, the unit immediately engages IR Nr. 29 in a firefight, but without effect. IR Nr. 42 is destroyed by cannister fire from 4. Heavy Artillery, deployed north of Punglitz. IR Nr. 29 remains in control of the northern bank of the Modderbach, north-east of Punglitz, but the unit is isolated as enemy cavarly enters the center of the Prussian position south of Punglitz.
- Artillery from Hadick's brigade advances south and engages the flank of an infantry regiment deployed facing south-west. Hadick's grenadiers advance east, attempting to locate enemy in that direction. Carabinier heavy cavalry moves into position to protect the left flank of Hadick's artillery. The enemy regiment, IR Nr. 3, pulls back behind a treeline and changes facing against Hadick's artillery. Baraniay Hussars advance into the enemy position, charge and ride down an enemy artillery battery in Fouque's brigade. The unit had been facing east, and the approaching hussars were well hidden behind a treeline.
- Modena Dragoons of Radicati's cavalry division charge out of the Hartenau and attack
IR Nr. 7 (von Bever) frontally at the same time that Schmerzing Kürassiers charge
the enemy flank. Both cavalry units attack in disorder due to the difficult terrain. The
infantry stands and fights, inflicting casualties on Modena Dragoons, and losing men in
the struggle. In the end, the cavalry prevails, IR von Bevern withdraws into the center
of the position. Kleinhausen's Prussian brigade is surrounded by enemy cavalry brigades
and supporting artillery.
Kollowrath's brigade advances through the Birckenacher Woods with extreme caution, halting the line upon contact with an enemy regiment. The ensuing firefight is without effect. Lubomirsky's brigade completes its deployment and moves up in support of Kollowrath.
- 19:00 hours: General Bevern surrenders, Prussian forces south of Punglitz throw down their muskets. Austrian cavalry pursues and rounds up many stragglers attempting to head north.
The Prussian square is shown at the very moment that Hadick Hussars arrived at the tree-line and encountered the enemy Grenadier regiment. The remaining Prussian units are hidden by a second tree-line and Hadick Hussars did not notice them. However, at this time in the battle the approximate location of the Prussian army cannot be in doubt. Banater light infantry reported sighting a large brigade of infantry an hour earlier and this vital information is likely to have been passed on to all Austrian commanders involved in the Battle at Jung Bunzlau. Reconaissance is the key to success.
- Prussian Casualties: 18,000 (including 11,000 Prisoners), 96 heavy and medium artillery pieces, 56 battalion guns, the corps commander -- General von Bevern -- and all four brigade commanders captured.
- Austrian Casualties: 7,000